Crop Rotation in the Georgia Community Garden

manageing-crop-diseases-in-high-tunnels-2015-23-638Crop rotation is a huge part of integrated pest management (IPM) in Georgia vegetable production.  It is an inexpensive tool in disease and nematode management.  Correctly using crop rotation can cut down on pesticide use and result in healthier plants.  Growing Vegetables Organically has some great information on this type of IPM.

As we are all planning our warm-season gardens crop rotation is something to consider.  However, it is a whole lot easier to rotate crops around a 3 acre farm than it is to move them around a 32 square foot garden plot.  How do we practice crop rotation in the community garden?  It is even necessary?

Crop rotation has been around for centuries.  Simply it is changing what is planted in a particular area each year.  Planting the same crop year after year in the same location causes disease pathogens to build up and become a real problem. Rotating crops helps break this disease cycle.  Also, since different crops use varying amounts of plant nutrients, crop rotation is a wise use of the nutrition in your soil.

Plants can be divided into families.  Learn those plant groupings because many pathogens infect crops in the same families.  The basic rule of crop rotation is:

Don’t plant crops from the same plant family in the same place every year. 

Crop families:

Onion family (Alliaceae):  chives, onions, garlic

Cole family (Brassicaceae):  lettuce, collards, cabbage, broccoli, spinach

Squash family (Cucurbitaceae):  pumpkins, watermelon, squash, cantaloupe

Bean family (Fabaceae):  beans, peas

Tomato family (Solanaceae):  tomatoes, peppers, eggplant

Since tomatoes and peppers are in the same family (Solanaceae),  don’t plant tomatoes where you have been growing peppers.  And, don’t follow squash with pumpkins (same Cucurbitaceae family).  Many farmers follow a four year or even longer rotation plan.  Their lettuce won’t see the same piece of soil for several years.  This helps lower disease pressure and cuts down on fungicide use.  Many Master Gardeners usually try for a three year rotation for a large garden area.

We know that crop rotation works to help create healthier plants but how does that translate in a Georgia community garden plot?

The best way is for the community gardener to choose plants from different families each year.  This isn’t always practical.  A gardener wants to grow what his/her family likes to eat.  That may mean beans every year.   The #1 vegetable grown in community gardens is tomatoes – year after year!

So, maybe you work with your fellow community gardeners and rotate who grows tomatoes and you all agree to share the tomato harvest.  This may not always work, either.  Some gardeners want lots of tomatoes every year.

Move your pole beans to the other side of the plot this year.  Buy your tomatoes from the farmers market this year and try growing squash.  Better yet, try growing and eating something entirely new.

An old fashion mattock may be your only tool for some modified rotation in your community garden plots.
An old fashioned mattock may be your only tool for some modified rotation in your community garden plots.

At the very least Bob Westerfield, UGA vegetable specialist, recommends turning your soil over.  Dig deeply bringing  up soil that hasn’t been exposed to the sun.  Go as deep as you are able.  In a small way you are not rotating your plants but rotating your soil.  Your UGA Extension agent can help you come up with a plan for crop rotation that will work for your situation.

Happy Gardening!

 

Becky Griffin

Becky Griffin

Community and School Garden Coordinator at UGA Extension
Becky Griffin helps school and community gardeners succeed! This includes organizing school garden teacher training with county agents, assisting schools with STE(A)M goals, and creating resources on starting and sustaining successful gardens.

Becky is a Georgia Certified Beekeeper and works with community and school gardeners to increase beneficial insect habitat.In 2019, she will coordinate the Great Georgia Pollinator Census (https://GGaPC.org).Ask her about it!
Becky Griffin

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2 thoughts on “Crop Rotation in the Georgia Community Garden

  1. Great stuff! Even without much room, I think I can switch sides of my plot to grow my favorite tomatoes. And I’ll dig a little deeper this spring too!

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