Pollinator Week 2018

Happy Pollinator Week 2018! This year UGA’s Center for Urban Agriculture has an exciting announcement. Are you ready???

August 23rd and 24th of 2019, citizens of Georgia will be conducting the first ever statewide pollinator census. This includes YOU if you live in Georgia! You will want to be a part of pollinator history!

We have been working towards this project for some time and even though it is still 14 months away, we want to make sure that every Georgia citizen has the date marked on their 2019 calendar. We have already been asked a few questions so I wanted to answer those most frequently asked:

What is the Great Georgia Pollinator Census? The Great Georgia Pollinator Census is a statewide project where all Georgia citizens will be asked to count pollinators on either August 23rd or 24th of 2019. Training and all supporting information will be provided through the website, https://GGaPC.org, closer to the August 2019 date.

How will it work? Each citizen scientist (YOU) will choose a favorite pollinator plant that is blooming in their garden for counting. You will count all the insects that land on that plant during a 15-minute period. After you tally the counts, you will upload your data to the webpage. Very simple. The data will be used for researchers to see a snapshot of which pollinators are at work in Georgia on those dates.

Do I have to be an entomologist to participate? NO, definitely NOT. We will be asking you to place the insects you see into one of eight categories:

Carpenter bees
Bumble bees
Small bees
Honey bees
Wasps
Flies
Butterflies
Other insects

The online training, conducted and posted online in 2019, will teach you how to tell the difference between flies, bees, and wasps. We will give you the tools to understand the basic skills needed to place insects in the categories. It will be very simple and straightforward. Of course, we will be available for any questions.

Can school groups participate? ABSOLUTELY! One of the reasons for the August date is to make sure school groups do participate. We will have lesson plans available for teachers use. We have conducted smaller censuses and school groups have really enjoyed the activities. The teachers can tie the census to their STEM activities.

If you are a teacher and have a lesson plan on pollinators that you want to share we would love to put the plan on our website and to feature you on upcoming social media. Just email me at beckygri@uga.edu to submit a lesson or for more information.

What about families? Can my small family participate? OF COURSE. The census is set up so that individuals can count in their gardens.

Will groups be holding special events around the census? YES, the State Botanical Garden in Athens and the Coastal Botanical Garden in Savannah have already started planning special events. Other gardens will follow. Also, contact your local UGA Extension office to see what they have planned.

Starting in January 2019 we will have supporting social media so that as you get ready for the census you will have fun, and educational, snippets to use in classrooms or in family discussions.

Why are you announcing the census so early? So that everyone can mark those dates on their calendars. And, it gives those who don’t have a pollinator garden time to design and plant one! (https://ugaurganag.com/pollinators)

What can we do now to get ready for the census? Plan and plant a pollinator garden, check the webpage and bookmark it (https://GGaPC.org), and contact me at beckygri@uga.edu if you have any questions.

Be part of Georgia pollinator history. Mark your calendar! Happy Pollinator Week 2018!

Becky Griffin

Insect Scouting is an Important Part of Vegetable Growing

Whether you work a large family farm, a home vegetable garden, or a 4’X8’ community garden vegetable plot, routine scouting for insects should be an important part of your vegetable growing plan. Insect pests can be a costly problem on vegetables and the lifecycles of some of our insect pests are so short that missing a week of scouting can lead to damaged crops and increased pest numbers.

Scouting involves carefully and deliberately walking though the garden looking for insects on a routine basis. Inspect the leaves and fruits/vegetables. Look on the undersides of leaves and on the stem. Evidence of boring insects can be seen on the plant stem while insect eggs are often deposited on the leaf undersides. If you are unsure of an insect identification, contact your local UGA Cooperative Extension agent for assistance. Do not automatically reach for an insecticide!

Insect eggs are easily removed. Simply remove the entire leaf and fold the leaf over on itself and smash the eggs. Or, if you want to preserve the leaf, use sticky tape to remove the eggs. Place tape on top of the egg mass and gently pull removing the eggs. Fold the tape on itself and smash the eggs.

Squash bug eggs are easy to remove.

Eggs like these are easy to miss if you don’t routinely scout your garden! Dealing with squash bug eggs is easier than managing the 30+ pest insects that could mature from these eggs. A helpful video goes through the easy steps.

Learning about the insects that are common pests for the food crops you are growing can be very helpful. Leaf-footed bugs (Leptoglossus spp.) are a problem for tomatoes while squash bugs are pests in cucumbers, squash and pumpkins. Aphids (Aphidoidea superfamily) are a common problem especially when plants are full of liquid, after a rain, or when plants are growing quickly. Mexican bean beetles (Epilachna varivestis) can easily destroy a bean crop but these insects have been mistaken for beneficial lady beetles.

Pest Mexican bean beetles can be mistaken for beneficial lady beetles.

It is estimated that only 3% of insects are pests so the insects you find in your garden are not always problematic. Don’t assume every insect you find is a “bad bug!” Take time to learn about beneficial insects such as assassin bugs, parasitic wasps, and lady beetles. These can be tremendous allies in your garden. Often these insects need floral resources and the plants you have added to attract pollinators will also help other beneficial insects.

The copper colored ovals in the photo below are aphid mummies. A helpful parasitic wasp laid an egg inside an aphid pest (green insect below). As the egg hatched the resulting larva consumed the aphid insides for nutrition. When the wasp matured it emerged from the aphid leaving the empty shell, aphid mummy, behind. Adult wasps will be looking for some nectar so your pollinator garden will be useful here.

Aphid mummies mean that parasitic wasps are working for you.

Scouting is just one tool of an integrated pest management (IPM) program. Other tools include:

¥ Altering planting time to miss large insect populations
¥ Using trap crops
¥ Starting with healthy soil
¥ Keeping the garden clean of debris
¥ Hand-pulling weeds
¥ Creating habitat for beneficial insects and pollinators
¥ Watering wisely
¥ Using plants that are proven to do well in your area

Happy Gardening!

Tomato Hornworms and Parasitic Wasps

Tomato hornworms (Manduca quinquemaculata) are a serious problem for tomato growers. These caterpillars have a large appetite and can quickly defoliate a tomato plant. If you find hornworms in your tomatoes, simply pick them off and drop them in soapy water. However, if you find a hornworm with white oblong obtrusions, leave it!

The white obtrusions are actually the cocoons of a parasitic wasp. A female wasp has laid her eggs under the skin of that hornworm. As the eggs hatch the larvae actually feed on the hornworm insides. The larvae eat their way out of the caterpillar and spin the cocoons you see. Eventually adult wasps will emerge from the cocoons and the weakened hornworm will die.

Photo credit: Texas A&M

The hope is that the emerging wasps will find other tomato hornworms to parasitize and you will have managed that pest. There are some generalist parasitic wasps that will provide that service for you. There is a braconid wasp, Cotesia congregates, that specifically looks for tomato hornworms. This small wasp has clear wings and as an adult they are nectar feeders. To persuade the wasps to stay in your garden you will need to have flowers. The small braconid wasps are attracted to small flowers like yarrow and small asters.

Instead of reaching for an insecticide for tomato hornworms encourage the ecosystem to assist you in managing that pest!

Happy Gardening!

Common Tomato Problems

This important information is shared with us by Robert R Westerfield, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Extension Horticulturist. He is our vegetable guru.


The tomato is the most commonly-grown vegetable in America. Unfortunately, producing big, red, juicy tomatoes requires considerable effort in preventing and controlling diseases.

tomatoslices

Select tomato varieties that are disease resistant. This is very important! This may be your only chance to control certain diseases. The letters behind a variety’s name tell what diseases it is resistant to: T-Tobacco Mosaic Virus, V-Verticillium Wilt, F-Fusarium wilt and N-Nematodes, some good possibilities are Celebrity and Better bush but there are many others. Resistance does not mean the plants are immune to these diseases.

Move tomatoes away from where they or potatoes, eggplant or peppers were planted last year. Soils in these areas may harbor leftover diseases. Bury all plant debris when tilling and keep mulches pulled back an inch or two from the stem.

You can plant tomatoes in a traditional vegetable garden, a raised bed or put a few plants in a flower garden. I would avoid potted tomatoes because they require extra care in watering. If you grow potted tomatoes-use 5 gallon or larger pots. Water until water runs out the drain holes and then let the soil dry slightly before watering again.

The number one tomato disease now is Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV). It is spread by thrips. Usually the top of the plant looks stunted or wilted. The young leaves may turn yellow and often have brown or black discoloration in them. The veins on the underside of leaves may thicken and turn purple. Fruit can have raised or flat rings or circles on them. Ripe fruit will have yellow circles or semicircles. The stem can have long brown lesions.

Once tomatoes get the disease, there is no control. There are two varieties of tomato that are resistant to TSWV. I have not yet seen them yet in stores. Spraying for thrips is also not effective.

Destroy infected plants as quickly as possible early in the season to prevent spread. Seal them up in a plastic bag. Even after the plant is pulled up thrips can leave it to spread the virus. Late in the season you may just want to let the infected plants finish ripening the fruit they have. Late season infection is less of a concern.

A fungus causes Fusarium wilt. It blocks the water conducting tissues in the plant. The leaves yellow and wilt, often starting at the bottom of the plant. This disease can affect just one side or one to several branches of the plant. The plant can die early producing no fruit. If you cut into the plant, the vascular system (just under the bark) will be brown. Control Fusarium wilt by planting resistant varieties. The ‘F’ after the name, like Celebrity VFN identifies these. Fusarium wilt can survive in the soil. Do not plant tomatoes in infected areas more than once every four years.

Bacterial wilt causes a rapid wilting and death of the plant. The plant dies so quickly it does not have time to yellow. To identify Bacterial wilt, cut through the stem. Bacterial wilt browns the pith or middle of the stem. On bad infections, the pith may be hollow. Cut a short section of the stem and suspend it in a clear glass of water. You can often see a milky ooze streaming out of the bottom of the cut stem. There are no controls or resistant varieties for bacterial wilt. It also attacks peppers, potatoes and eggplant. Carefully dig out infected plants and soil and discard. Do not plant any of these vegetables in this area for at least four years.
Southern blight is a white mold that rots the stem at or near the soil line. The plant then wilts or dies. Look for the cottony fungus growth and the light brown BB-sized fruiting structures of the fungus. The fungus may be slightly above or below the soil line. You may not see the fungus growing on infected plants when the weather is dry.

Bury all plant residues before planting, plant vegetables farther apart, and treat with Terraclor at planting if you have a problem with Southern blight. Some people wrap the stem near the soil line with foil to slow this disease and to control cutworms. The foil must extend two inches above and below the soil line.

Blossom-end rot (BER) appears as a dry leathery spot on the blossom end of tomatoes. It can also affect peppers and watermelons. The spot is usually on the blossom end, is tough and leathery and slightly sunken. Other rots may infect this spot. These fruits may turn red first.

BER is caused by lack of calcium in the blossom end of the fruit. By the time the tomato reaches the size of a nickel it has most of the calcium that it will ever have. This is why we need to prevent blossom end rot early. Inadequate water supply, low pH or low soil calcium levels can cause this problem. Find and correct these problems.

Once a plant has BER, it is hard to control. Calcium is best taken up by the roots so sprays are not very effective. Control and prevent BER by:

  • Water the plants well and let the soil dry between waterings. A sample watering schedule is three-quarter inch twice a week if there is no rain.
  • Apply a two to three inch mulch around the plant. Do not heavily prune the plant.
  • Soil sample and lime and fertilize as needed. Avoid large applications of high nitrogen fertilizers when fruit are small.
  • Add gypsum (calcium sulfate) or lime to the soil at planting. Mix a cup in each planting hole or use one pound per 100 square feet. You can apply this once you see the problem but these treatments work slowly. Plants often appear to grow out of the problem as conditions improve.

For further information. Tomatoes flowers will not set fruit if temperatures are not right, if the plant is water stressed or if it already has enough fruit. Night temperatures should be 55o to 75o F. for best fruiting. Night temperatures above 90o will especially cause problems. Water twice a week (3/4 inch each time) and mulch plants. There is a blossom set chemical you can spray if you can locate it in the garden centers.

Leaf Rolling occurs when the plant has set a heavy load of fruit and the light intensity is high. It can be caused by wet soils. The condition is harmless and should not hurt final production. Prune less heavily and plant in a well-drained area.

Uneven ripening occurs as grey or white spots inside the fruit. Several factors can be involved including improper nutrition, high temperature and disease. The only thing we can correct is nutrition. Do not use too much nitrogen and/or too little potassium. Soil sample and fertilize accordingly. Use high potassium fertilizers, 5-10-15, 15-0-15 especially as fruits begin to get larger than a quarter.

Fruit cracking is due to rapid growth after periods of slow growth. Rain after drought and heavy fertilization can cause fruit cracking. Harvest fruits after they begin to turn red but before they crack. Follow the watering practices we have discussed and look for cracking resistant varieties.

Catfacing is caused by cool temperatures at time of pollination. The fruit is deformed with ‘zippers’ on the skin. The fruit can have lobes, tear drops or several blossom scars. Plant resistant varieties, plant later, or use row covers to increase the temperature on cool days and nights. The large beefsteak varieties appear to be more susceptible. The fruit is still edible.

Sun scald appears as a white blistered area on the top of the tomato. Do not prune heavily and maintain nutrition and pest control so as to provide a good leafy cover for the fruits. Be careful not to confuse this with Blossom End Rot.


Resource(s): Vegetable Gardening in Georgia

Center Publication Number: 100

Happy Gardening!

Tomato Planting 1,2,3

Now that you have chosen your tomato plants it is time to put them in the ground. There is a trick to planting tomatoes that helps them get through a long, dry, hot Georgia summer.

Snip off the lower leaves.
Snip off the lower leaves.

Step 1: Tomatoes need full sun, 8 hours, for setting fruit.  They also need well-drained, porous soil with a pH of about 6.2.  Plan on giving them at least 2 feet X 3 feet of growing space.  You will need to stake the plants or use wire cages to contain the plant growth.  Once you have your site ready, start with a healthy plant with a strong stem.  Notice the stem seems hairy.

Step 2:  Gently remove the lower leaves with snippers or by pinching them off with your fingers. Be careful not to make tears along the stem which would create wounds.  Leave the top two or three leaves.

20140412_112049
The hairs on the now buried stem will become roots creating a strong root system to better handle periods of drought.

Step 3:  Dig the hole deep enough so that you can bury the stem up to the remaining top leaves.  The part that is planted under the soil will develop roots creating a strong, deep root system that will help the plant better handle dry periods.

Press the soil around the plant so that a slight depression is formed for holding water.  These steps should get you one step closer to that BLT!

For more information about growing tomatoes see Robert Westerfield’s publication Georgia Home Grown Tomatoes.  For the best information for your area, contact your local UGA Extension Agent.

Happy Gardening!

 

 

 

Tomato Terminology for the Georgia Garden

Over the next weeks we will be exploring the world of tomatoes. They are the most popular plant in community gardens. But tomatoes can be problematic. Together we will share the good, the bad, and the delicious of tomato growing. Please share your experiences. To begin our tomato journey we are going to look at some tomato terminology.

Tomatoes in Hay BalesDeterminate vs. Indeterminate

When deciding on what type of tomato plants you want to grow, choose if you want determinate or indeterminate varieties.  Determinate plants bear all of their fruit at one time.  The plants tend to be more compact and easier to manage.  You will probably still need to support them with a tomato cage or staking.  Determinate varieties are popular with growers who want to preserve the fruit, make tomato sauces, or salsas as they get all the fruit at once.

Indeterminate varieties bear their fruit throughout the growing season.  The plants tend to sprawl and will definitely need support by staking or caging.  Growers who like to eat fresh tomatoes throughout the summer prefer indeterminate varieties.

Tomato Disease Resistance

Due to successful tomato breeding gardeners now can choose tomatoes that show resistance to the common diseases that plague all tomato growers.  A note of disclaimer here – remember that disease resistance does not mean disease proof.  You can easily determine the disease resistance of a particular variety by the initials after the name:

Big Boy VFN Tomatoes
Big Boy VFN Tomatoes

V – Resistance to the fungus that causes Verticillium wilt.

F, FF, or FFF – Resistance to the fungus that causes Fusarium wilt.  Sadly, some of the fungi developed immunities to the resistance qualities of the initial “F” tomatoes, so breeders developed cultivars that are resistant to the newer fungal races so now you may see “FF” and “FFF”.

N – Resistance to nematodes

T – Resistance to the Tobacco Mosaic Virus

TSWV– Resistance to the Tomato Spotted Wilted Virus

A – Resistance to the fungus that causes Alternaria Stem Canker

St – Resistance to the fungus that causes Grey Leaf Spot, Stemphylium solani.

Big Boy VFN shows resistance to Verticillium wilt, Fusarium wilt, and nematodes.    Tomato plant sellers in your area should stock the tomatoes with the resistance you need.  Look for the resistant cultivars in seed catalogs as well.

Don’t rely on planting disease resistance cultivars as your only line of defense against disease.  Good cultural practices like proper irrigation, mulching, soil building, fertilization and removal of diseased plants are examples of the integrated pest management (IPM) you should be using.

If you think your tomatoes have one of these diseases contact your local UGA Extension office for confirmation.  Georgia Home Grown Tomatoes is an excellent publication for tomato connoisseurs.

Happy Tomato Gardening!

 

This is My Heirloom Seed Story. What’s Yours?

My family hails from deep in the Appalachian Mountains. My mother’s ancestors came with Daniel Boone’s family through the Cumberland Gap and into what is now Breathitt County, Kentucky. My father’s family settled in Pike County, Kentucky, where he grew up at the back of church house holler. I am a McCoy from Hatfield and McCoy fame and like most people from Appalachia I have an heirloom bean seed story.

Beans in these mountains have been grown and handed down for centuries. Most Appalachian beans are cornstalk beans, meaning traditionally they were grown along with tall, open-pollinated corn. The tall corn stalks supported the long, bean vines. As time went on and hybrid corn stalks became shorter, people grew the beans on poles for support and they became “pole beans.”

As commercial beans became popular, large growers bred their beans for a tough outer shell or pod. The tougher shell meant that the beans could better stand mechanical harvest and handling. Appalachian beans are prized for their softer shell and full bean kernels. They have names like Lazy Wife Greasy Bean and Turkey Craw Bean. Eaten fresh or dried for winter dishes, they are family legacies. There are festivals honoring the Appalachian bean all across the mountains where seed swaps take center stage.

My bean seed was given to me by my Aunt Tillie. She received them from her mother who got them from her mother, and so on. My Jonah Beans are more of a bush bean than a cornstalk bean. In my north Georgia home, I can get three plantings of Jonah Beans each season. I generally grow enough for my family to enjoy and to put up a few canned jars. Of course I save seed year to year.

Jonah Beans in the May Garden

Beans are harvested, strings are removed (usually while sitting on the front porch) and prepared fresh. They are best cooked with a strip or two of bacon and a side of skillet cornbread. Happily, bush beans are a great addition to a community garden plot. They can also be used in school gardens with timely planting.

I am honored to be a keeper of this seed, of this mountain tradition. Planting, harvesting and preparing them is more than just growing beans. It is a way to connect with my heritage and to share that heritage with the next generation. If you are interested in Appalachian heirlooms Bill Best’s book Saving Seeds, Preserving Taste is a fantastic resource full of stories.

That is my heirloom seed story, what’s yours?

Soil Temperatures in Your Georgia Garden

Soil Temperatures in Your Georgia Garden

With the recent warm temperatures it is easy to be seduced into planting your summer crops now.   It is tempting to plant our vegetable transplants and seeds; we can’t wait for that first juicy tomato are a crunch pepper!  Be aware that soil temperatures are very important for success with your early summer plantings.

Soil Temperatures in Your Georgia Garden
Pepper Seedlings

Soil temperatures need to be 60-65 degrees F and rising at the 4 inch soil depth before you plant your summer crops.

If you install a transplant too early the roots won’t grow and the plant will just be sitting in the soil.  If we have a large amount of rain, which seems to be the norm this year, your new plant will just be sitting in wet soil.  This could mean early disease issues.

This morning the Ballground weather station, near my home, indicated a 4-inch soil temperature of 54.6 degrees F. In Griffin the 4-inch soil temperature was 56.8 degrees F while Valdosta reported 63.5 degrees F.

If the soil temperatures are not warm enough for seed germination, early seed plantings could rot.

The roots need to be actively growing to absorb water and nutrients.

If we plant and fertilizer summer vegetables too early we will be wasting fertilizer.  The plant roots simply can’t absorb it.  This fertilizer could get washed away, wasting your time and money. Also, this leached fertilizer could be problematic for our watersheds.

Determine your soil temperatures.

To determine your soil temperature at the 4 inch depth visit www.georgiaweather.net.  Click on the station nearest your garden.  Or, you can see a summary of soil temperatures across the state.

Soil Temperatures in Your Georgia Garden
Newly planted tomatoes. Waiting until the soil temperatures are warm enough is one step to success for your summer garden.

Remember the rule of thumb is play it safe and wait!

Happy Gardening!

What You Need to Know About Aeroponic Tower Systems

Schools with limited outdoor space and teachers who are uncomfortable with traditional agriculture are turning to aeroponic tower systems to grow food for the classroom. Cobb County Cooperative Extension office has installed one of the systems in their office and have had a few harvests of leafy greens and herbs. I recently talked with Daniel Price, a Cobb Extension program assistant, about the system.

How the Tower System Works
Aeroponics are a subset of the older hydroponics. They both are soilless systems that rely on a nutrient water blend. As a college student, a long time ago, I worked in a hydroponics lab. The nutrients flowed continually around the plant roots in an open system. We were continually concerned about bacteria and viruses infecting the nutrient system. Things have changed with the updated aeroponics.

Rockwool seed germination cells.

In aeroponic tower systems seeds are germinated in a special media called rockwool. Once the seedlings grow a few true leaves they are moved to the tower system. Cobb County’s tower example has 20 plant spaces with an outer ring for plant support.

The inside of the tower system. Look at those roots!

The nutrient water blend is housed in a 20-gallon drum at the bottom of the tower. The blend is rained on the plant roots for 15 minutes per hour. The system is enclosed which helps limit contamination of the nutrient blend. Plant lights surround the tower and are on a timer. Basically once the system is set-up everything is automatic until you are ready to harvest. Daniel says that it takes 2-3 weeks from lettuce seedlings to a full harvest.

The tower garden does not take up much space.

Issues to Consider
*This tower system cost approximately $1,000. This included the hardware, seedling starter kit, pH tester, pH buffer, and a start pack of nutrients.

*Leaks are sometimes a problem if the tower is not on very even ground.

*The pH needs to be routinely monitored but if it falls out of the recommended range, it is not too difficult to adjust.

*Algae growth is common around the rockwell plug and most experts do not think it is a problem. It just looks concerning.

*This system does not totally eliminate pest and disease issues.

Cobb Extension personnel are happy with the system. They have enjoyed the harvests and have not had any serious issues. Although they have only grown leafy greens and herbs at this point, the plan is to expand the plant selections. Daniel uses the tower as a teaching tool and has held several classes about aeroponics. Cobb Extension encourages anyone who wants to see the system at work to visit their office.

Thanks, Daniel, for showing me around the aeroponics system!

Happy Gardening!