Preemergence Herbicides for Annual Bluegrass

Patrick McCullough, Extension Weed Specialist, University of Georgia

Preemergence herbicides may prevent annual bluegrass infestation via seed and limit current infestations from further spreading.  However, preemergence herbicides will not eradicate established plants and will not effectively control perennial biotypes of annual bluegrass from spreading vegetatively.

Poa annua, Joseph M. DiTomaso, University of California - Davis
Annual Bluegrass, Joseph M. DiTomaso, University of California – Davis, Bugwood.org

Application timing of preemergence herbicides for annual bluegrass control is very important. Herbicides must be applied in late summer/early fall before annual bluegrass germination.  This info on timing herbicide application is taken from an article online by Tim Murphy, UGA Weed Scientist. “Annual bluegrass germinates in the late summer and early fall when daytime temperatures consistently drop into the mid-70os and nighttime temperatures are in the mid-50os for several days. In the Piedmont of Georgia for winter annual weed control, apply the preemergence herbicide sometime during the first two to three weeks of September (by September 20). In north Georgia, the last week of August up to about September 15 would be the preferred time. In South Georgia, the application should be made during the mid-September to mid-October time frame.”

A second herbicide application can be applied in spring to control germinating plants.  Fall applied preemergence herbicides cannot be used if reseeding or re-sodding is needed to repair areas of damaged turf within several months after herbicide applications.

Several preemergence herbicides effectively control annual bluegrass in fall and winter which are similar to products used for summer annual weed control (Table 2).  These herbicides include dithiopyr (Dimension), oxadiazon (Ronstar, Starfighter), pendimethalin (Pendulum, others), and prodiamine (Barricade, others).

Combination herbicide products are also available which may improve efficacy of applications.  These products include oxadiazon plus bensulide (Anderson’s Crab and Goose) and benefin plus oryzalin (Team 2G or Team Pro).  Many preemergence herbicides are available under a wide variety of trade names and formulations. Carefully read and follow label instructions before applying products.

Most preemergence herbicides will provide similar initial efficacy if applied before annual bluegrass germination and if sufficient rain or irrigation is received.  Preemergence herbicides require incorporation from irrigation or rainfall so that weeds may absorb the applied material.  In order to effectively control annual bluegrass, preemergence herbicides must be concentrated in the upper 1/3 inch of the soil profile.  Avoid herbicide retention on leaves and incorporate the herbicide into the soil by irrigating turf immediately after application.

Table 1.  Efficacy of postemergence herbicides for crabgrass control in turfgrasses.  See labels for turf tolerance and areas for use.

Postemergence Herbicides for Crabgrass Control

Common NameTrade Name (Examples)

Control

ClethodimEnvoy

E

FenoxapropAcclaim Extra

E

MesotrioneTenacity

F-G

QuincloracDrive, Drive XLR8

E

SethoxydimSegment, others

E

E = Excellent (90 to 100%), G = Good (80 to 89%), F = Fair (70 to 79%), P = Poor (<70%).

 

Table 2.  Efficacy of preemergence herbicides for annual bluegrass control in commercial turfgrasses.

Preemergence Herbicides for Annual Bluegrass Control

Common NameTrade Name (Examples)

Control

AtrazineAatrex, others

E

BenefinBalan

E

BensulideBetasan, others

F

DithiopyrDimension

G

EthofumesatePrograss

G-E

MesotrioneTenacity

F

OryzalinHarrier, Surflan

G

OxadiazonRonstar, Starfighter

G

PendimethalinPendulum, others

G

ProdiamineBarricade, Cavalcade, others

E

PronamideKerb

E

SimazinePrincep, WynStar, others

E

E = Excellent (90 to 100%), G = Good (80 to 89%), F = Fair (70 to 79%), P = Poor (<70%).

 

Helpful publications from UGA Extension on controlling annual bluegrass

 

Annual Bluegrass Control in Residential Turfgrass

Patrick McCullough, Extension Weed Specialist

This publication describes methods of control for annual bluegrass in residential turfgrass lawns.

To see the entire publication go here.

Topics:

 

Annual Bluegrass Control in Non-Residential Commercial Turfgrass

Patrick McCullough, UGA Department of Crop and Soil Science

Accessible Training for the Landscape & Turf Industries

Online training

The Safety Makes Sense: Landscape Worker Safety Certificate Course is available at no charge on Vimeo (vimeo.com/46623806).  With this tool, you can train on your time schedule, rainy day or any day.  The training video (a compilation of the Safety Makes Sense series) can be viewed online.  It can also be downloaded and saved for use when Internet is not available.  The course study guide and supervisor’s key provide talking points and a quick review.  Upon successful completion of the evaluation (70% or better), workers are emailed Certificates of Completion.

The publication Safety Checklists for New Landscape Employees is designed to assure and document safety training for new employees, these well-illustrated checklists are suitable for use with both English and Spanish speakers.  They cover general safety precautions, equipment safety, mower safety and basic pesticide safety.

The bilingual safety manual, Safety for Hispanic Landscape Workers, is available Online or For purchase

All center safety training resources and Hispanic worker resources are available on the UGA Center for Urban Agriculture web site at Safety Makes Sense.

UGA offers a monthly webinar for the landscape industry. Past classes are also archived for viewing online.

The Urban Ag Council has an excellent collection of Safety Zone training materials. Part of this collection of training materials is the Safety School.

Just In Time Disaster Training videos cover disaster related preparedness, safety, response and recovery training for a wide variety of areas.

eXtension is a web-based collaboration of land-grant universities across the US to make university educational resources more accessible. You can learn more about the initiative here – http://about.extension.org/

eXtension Learn offers online classes covering numerous topics including pest control, landscaping, info technology and other topics. You can register to be reminded of upcoming trainings, access trainings online and view archived trainings at https://learn.extension.org/

eLearn Urban Forestry Online Training – The Office of the Southern Regional Extension Forester, the USDA FS Region 8–Urban and Community Forestry Program along with the Southern Group of State Foresters have partnered to design, develop and implement a state-of-the-art online, distance-learning program geared specifically toward beginning urban foresters and those allied professionals working in and around urban and urbanizing landscapes

To access the modules for free, please visit www.elearn.sref.info

To access the modules for International Society of Arboriculture and Society of American Foresters credit, please visit www.cfegroup.org

To access the modules for volunteer credit or a certificate of completion, visit www.campus.extension.org  and look for the eLearn Urban Forestry–Citizen Forester course.

For more specific information, please contact Sarah Ashton, Educational Program Coordinator, Southern Regional Extension Forestry at sashton@sref.info .

Pesticide Applicator Training

A Commercial Pesticide Applicator’s License is required for a person who applies pesticides to the land of another person for hire, or who manages these type pesticide applications. A firm applying pesticides for hire must also have a Pesticide Contractor’s License. Both of these licenses can be obtained through the Georgia Department of Agriculture.

For more information on training for these licenses

See this site to order study materials or to sign up for exams

The Georgia Competent Applicator of Pesticides Program (GCAAP) is a comprehensive training tool for pesticide technician and handlers. GCAPP offers training for pesticide applicators that do not have a commercial license.

Commercial applicators of mosquito control products need to have pesticide applicator certification in Category 41, Mosquito Control. UGA Entomologist Elmer Gray has recorded an online video to better prepare applicators to take and to pass the Category 41 pesticide exam.

Video Training

The Super Crew Employee Training for Landscape Professionals has several videos that can be purchased for training landscape workers. See the list of titles.

The Super Crew training series is also available in an online option.

Certification

The Georgia Certified Landscape Professional (GCLP) program is a voluntary testing program that certifies those in the landscape profession who have mastered a thorough knowledge and understanding of job skills required to be successful in the industry. The Georgia Certified Plant Professional program (GCPP) certifies plant professionals for the retail and wholesale ornamental plant industries.

The UGA Center for Continuing Education offers several online certifications:

Email Newsletters

Landscape Alerts for the landscape and turf industry are released as needed. See past issues here or subscribe by emailing ebauske@uga.edu.

Pest Control Alerts update the structural pest management industry. See past issues here or subscribe by emailing ebauske@uga.edu.

Pesticide Related Resources

Information about specific pesticides or other info – National Pesticide Information Center – (800) 858-7378

Information about risks of specific pesticides:

Extension Toxicology Network

Especially note the PIPS or Pesticide Information Profiles

Other pesticide information

Contact your Local UGA Extension Office

Locate your local UGA Extension Office

Call your local UGA Extension Office – 800-ASK-UGA1 (800-275-8421) from any non-mobile phone.

Designing a Quality Control Program for Your Landscape Company

Bodie Pennisi, Department of Horticulture and Willie Chance, Center for Urban Agriculture

Well-groomed landscapes are often a result of considerable effort by landscape companies. Employees make them happen with routine care and, above all, attention to detail. A quality landscape and the image employees present on the job speak highly of the professionalism of the firm. Quality control (QC) is everyone’s responsibility and an essential part of a landscaper’s job. This publication describes the basics of creating and implementing a successful QC program for your landscaping company. See the entire publication

Topics include:

Hummingbirds don’t fly after dark – hummingbird moths do

Nancy Hinkle, UGA Extension Entomologist

Remember that big green worm with the red horn on its tail that was eating your tomato plants in July? Well, over the last month it has burrowed into the soil, pupated, and emerged as a big moth that shows up after sunset and feeds from flowers at night.

The moths are called “hummingbird moths” because they look and act so much like hummingbirds, being able to hover over a flower and drink from it in flight. Also, like hummingbirds, they are fast fliers, zipping back and forth among blossoms. The moth’s tongue is actually longer than its body, allowing it to extract nectar from deep-throated blossoms.

These hummingbird moths, which are also called sphinx moths, can have wingspans up to 4 inches. The moths are gray with darker gray and black markings, and they have yellow or orange spots on the sides of their abdomens.

The moths’ larvae, those green caterpillars known as hornworms, feed on Solanaceous plants like tomato and tobacco. They have also been found on potato, eggplant and peppers, and they can thrive on these plants’ wild relatives such as jimsonweed, tropical soda apple and horse nettle.

Tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms are similar in appearance and behavior, and both feed on tomato and tobacco plants.

The larvae are harmless to humans; the red horn on the rear end is flexible and cannot stick you. The best way to manage the pests is to be vigilant and pick each caterpillar off the plant as soon as you see it. Save it, and you can give it to a local schoolteacher for classroom demonstrations.

After the larva has fed to fullness, and is about 3 or 4 inches long, it crawls down into the soil and changes into the pupal stage. The pupa is distinctive in having a loop, almost like a shepherd’s crook, at one end; this is where the mouthparts of the adult moth form.

The reddish-brown pupa will remain underground until next spring when the adult moth will emerge from the pupal skin, through the soil and start the cycle all over again. If your garden is already planted when these moths emerge in the spring, they may lay their first batch of eggs on your young tomato plants, so keep an eye out for hungry caterpillars.

Dr John Ruter to lead UGA Trial Gardens

Dr John Ruter, UGA Horticulturist

Merritt Melancon, University of Georgia 

After 30 years, the Trial Gardens at UGA — that green, flower-laden oasis sandwiched between Snelling Dining Hall and the College of Pharmacy — is being tended by a new green thumb.

Dr John Ruter, UGA Horticulturist
Image Credit John Ruter

UGA Department of Horticulture professor John Ruter took over the day-to-day operations from garden co-founder Allan Armitage on July 1. Armitage is officially retiring at the end of 2013. He originally retired in 2010 and came back halftime.

Ruter has spent more than two decades as a horticulture professor and a nursery crop research and Extension specialist on the UGA Tifton campus, where he also ran the Coastal Plain Research Arboretum.

He moved to the Athens campus in 2012 after he was awarded the Allan M. Armitage Endowed Professorship for Herbaceous Plant Instruction and Introduction. He now teaches classes in plant identification and environmental issues in horticulture.

Ruter doesn’t want to rustle too many leaves as he eases into his new role, but he does want to spruce up the garden a bit — mostly planning changes to attract new visitors, allow it to run more efficiently and be used for more horticulture classes.

“I’m just starting with it, but I do have lots of ideas,” Ruter said.

While the Trial Gardens serves as a testing ground for new plant varieties, it’s also an integral part of the UGA Department of Horticulture’s teaching and research programs. It’s important to Ruter to maintain all the facets of the garden’s mandate.

Plant nurseries and breeding companies send hundreds of new plants each year to see if they can survive the hot and rainfall variable Southeast. They fund the garden by paying to have their plants evaluated by an outside source. That money pays for the gardens’ upkeep and a team of student workers who keep the garden running.

While providing an important link with the green industry, the garden is also a research lab, where Ruter will work with graduate students to develop new plant varieties, and a classroom for plant identification and other horticulture courses.

Ruter plans to make the garden more useful as a teaching tool by planting more perennials and annuals that bloom in fall and early spring when classes are in session. This will also be good for the entomology, plant biology, plant pathology, landscape architecture and visual arts instructors who also use the garden as an outdoor classroom.

“We’re still going to get some perennials in there for evaluation, and they will always be there,” Ruter said. “We will always have a majority of summer blooming plants, but maybe we can have some other things that we can use for teaching purposes and that can help make (the garden) a little more showy other times of the year — rather than just during the summer.”

Planting for a more diverse blooming schedule will also bolster the garden’s reputation as a destination — both for visitors to the Classic City and for Athens’ residents. Support on-campus and from the general public will be integral to maintaining it as green space on campus for decades to come, Ruter said.

Like in every other part of the university, Ruter, Meg Green (Trial Garden supervisor), and her team of student workers and volunteers are operating within tighter budget constraints.

“We’re trying to make some renovations to the perennial gardens and work on efficiency,” he said. “How can we do things differently with the limited resources that we have?”

The garden will remain open to the public on a daily basis and continue its schedule of public and industry open houses throughout the year. Those seeking more information about the garden can visit ugatrial.hort.uga.edu.

(Merritt Melancon is a news editor with the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.)

New legal residency requirement for pesticide licenses

During the last state legislative session, a house bill was passed that required all state agencies that issue licenses to verify the legal residence of the applicant. All state agencies had to comply. The following explains the process required for verifying your legal residency when applying for a pesticide license renewal with the Georgia Department of Agriculture.

The following link contains the S&V (Secure & Verifiable) affidavit that you must submit when you renew your GA Dept of Ag Commercial Pesticide License http://www.agr.georgia.gov/verification-of-lawful-presence.aspx

•             Go to the documents column on the right side of the page.

•             Click on the Affidavit link at the bottom of the column.

•             Complete the form and have it notarized. Include a copy of  the applicant’s ID.

•             Mail, fax, or e-mail the form to the Licensing Division.

This document must accompany all new private and commercial pesticide licenses as well as renewals. It is important to understand that you will only have to complete this process once. The Affidavit will be kept on file with the GDA Licensing Program.

The website also has a tutorial to lead you through the online license renewal process.

Without the Secure and Verifiable Affidavit, new licenses and license renewals cannot be processed. If you have any questions call the Licensing Division (855) 424-4367. If the Department of Agriculture can provide additional information, please let us know.

GA Department of Agriculture explains new legal residency requirement for pesticide licenses

During the last state legislative session, a house bill was passed that required all state agencies that issue licenses to verify the legal residence of the applicant. All state agencies had to comply. The following explains the process required for verifying your legal residency when applying for a pesticide license renewal with the Georgia Department of Agriculture.

The following link contains the S&V (Secure & Verifiable) affidavit that you must submit when you renew your GA Dept of Ag Commercial Pesticide License http://www.agr.georgia.gov/verification-of-lawful-presence.aspx

•  Go to the documents column on the right side of the page.

•  Click on the Affidavit link at the bottom of the column.

•  Complete the form and have it notarized. Include a copy of

    the applicant’s ID.

•  Mail, fax, or e-mail the form to the Licensing Division.

This document must accompany all new private and commercial pesticide licenses as well as renewals. It is important to understand that you will only have to complete this process once. The Affidavit will be kept on file with the GDA Licensing Program.

The website also has a tutorial to lead you through the online license renewal process.

Without the Secure and Verifiable Affidavit, new licenses and license renewals cannot be processed. If you have any questions call the Licensing Division (855) 424-4367. If the Department of Agriculture can provide additional information, please let us know.

Reminder to businesses offering mosquito control services

 If a business offers mosquito control services for a fee, then they will need at least one person to have a Category 41 (mosquito control) license. Other license categories (24 – Ornamentals & Turf, 21 – General Agriculture, etc.) are not sufficient for companies that offer mosquito control services.

For more information on obtaining a Mosquito Control license visit:

Info on the GA Dept of Ag pesticide division.

Online video helps prepare applicators to take the mosquito control applicators exam.

Information on the Georgia Dept of Agriculture Pesticide Division (800) 282-5852

Compiled July 23, 2013GDAg

Where can I order training manuals to study to take the commercial pesticide applicator exam (mosquito control, ornamentals and turf, etc.)?

If you do not already have a commercial license, you will need to take two exams – the General Standards exam and the exam specific for your field (Mosquito Control, Ornamentals & Turf, Right of Way, etc.) Find information on ordering the manuals for the general standards exam and the category exams here.

How can I register to take a commercial pesticide applicator exam?

Visit the Applicator Testing website. You will need to create an account to enter the system. The exams are given at Technical Colleges across the state.

I have a license in one category from the Pesticide Division and want a license in a second category. Do I have to take the General Standards exam again?

No, you just need to take the test for that exam. Order the manual for that category, study the manual and then register for and take the exam that is specific for that category.

Where can I find pesticide applicator recertification classes?

Visit this website. Also contact your local Extension Agent for classes. 

Where can I find information on my commercial applicator’s license (hours needed, etc), recertification classes available, etc.?

Visit this website

 

The Georgia Department of Agriculture now has a Licensing Division. There are 7 coordinators with a call center to help assist with online renewals. The coordinators are being crossed trained so that everyone is familiar with the basic licensing process for each license. Contact the Licensing Division if you have questions – 404-586-1411 or toll free 855-424-5423 or email GDAlicensing@agr.georgia.gov

For regulatory questions continue to contact the respective division.

 

Sandy Shell is one of the Licensing Coordinators for the Georgia Department of Agriculture. She recommends the Kelly Solutions website.

The following can be accessed through this website:

  • Verify credit hours for Commercial Pesticide Applicator and Structural Pest licenses
  • Find recertification courses for private and commercial licenses
  • Renew Commercial and Pesticide Contractor Licenses (Structural renewals coming very soon)
  • Apply for a new Pesticide Contractor License
  • Apply for a new RUP Dealer license
  • Secure & Verifiable documents (coming very soon)

Does Georgia have reciprocal pesticide applicator license agreements with other states?

Georgia does reciprocate with other states on certain categories. Anyone needing more information on this can call Ag Inputs – Pesticide Section at (404) 656-4958.

Turfgrass Disease Update – Gray Leaf Spot and Rust

Rust on zoysia

Alfredo Martinez, Extension Plant Pathologist

Time to scout for gray leaf spot

Gray leaf spot is a fungus disease that affects St. Augustinegrass, perennial ryegrass and tall fescue in Georgia. Hot humid summer weather and high nitrogen levels can make turf susceptible to this disease. The fungus causing the disease is Pyricularia grisea.

Read more

Lespedeza Identification and Control in Turfgrass

Lespedeza McCullough

Edited from a publication by Patrick McCullough, UGA Extension Weed Specialist

See the entire publication here

Common lespedeza (Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schind syn. Lespedeza striata) is a freely-branched summer annual legume that is a problem weed in lawns and other turf areas. Common lespedeza, also known as Japanese clover or annual lespedeza, has three smooth, oblong leaflets with parallel veins that are nearly perpendicular to the midvein

As common lespedeza matures, the stems harden and become woody, which is attributed to persistence and competition with turfgrasses in late summer

Flowers are pink to purple and present in the leaf axils. Other lespedeza species may also be found as weeds in turf but common lespedeza is the primary species in Georgia.

This publication gives information on

To see the entire publication click here.

Find other UGA publications here

Photo credit – Common lespedeza in a centipedegrass lawn. Photo by P. McCullough.