I am often amazed at the number of community garden plots that remain empty during the fall, cool-season growing time. Many times the plots are simply abandoned with warm-season crop debris mixed with growing weeds. Why aren’t these spaces full of edible leafy greens?
After speaking with many of these gardeners and garden managers, my anecdotal research reveals that gardeners are simply tired. I have heard it many times. They have spent many summer hours in the garden and they want a break. They associate a garden with tomatoes, squash and cucumbers instead of lettuce, onions, and broccoli. It is a shame because cool-season growing is often superior to summer gardening.
1. Pest and disease pressure is lessened. 2. The hot outdoor working conditions are over. 3. We can grow many types of vegetables in the cool-season garden.
On the other end of the spectrum I have met gardeners who plant a cover crop in the summer, purchasing their tomatoes and cucumbers at the local Farmers Market. They would rather take the summer off and do their planting in the cool-season.
I would like to challenge you to garden a bit differently in 2019. Try growing something new, grow in a different season, or expand your garden knowledge. Over the next several weeks we are going to explore these topics to have you all prepared to challenge yourself in the coming year.
October means fall festivals and seasonal events across the state of Georgia. From Blue Ridge to Savannah, from Augusta to Columbus everyone is celebrating fall. What is your community garden doing to celebrate? This time of year is perfect for emphasizing the “community” in your garden. Some suggestions:
Host scarecrows in the garden! This is done with flair at the Atlanta Botanical Garden and the Research and Education Garden in Griffin. Why not your garden? Ask local businesses, civic groups or schools to create a scarecrow to exhibit. This could be a contest where visitors vote and a local celebrity awards the prize. For a twist have the exhibitors create/decorate crow birds which can perch with a spooky flair in the garden. Craft stores sell crow bird props at low prices, easy to decorate.
Season storytelling in the garden for all ages. Enlist some garden members or community leaders to lead a spooky storytelling event in the garden. Reading an Edgar Allen Poe story or poem dressed in period costume would create excitement for sure. If your garden is large enough you could station readers around the plots.
Have a pumpkin decorating contest. Even if your garden does not grow pumpkins you could purchase some from a church pumpkin sale. Or, you could use other vegetables. Have visitors decorate a pumpkin/vegetable and take the opportunity to educate community members about growing vegetables.
Celebrate with an open house. If your community already has a scarecrow exhibit or other events simply add an open house to be part of the larger town effort. An open house does not to be much work on your gardeners and would be an excellent opportunity to let your town know about your beautiful space.
Whatever you decide to do, enjoy the fall season! You’ve earned it!
If a flooding creek encroached on your garden what did that water bring with it? Possibly contamination from pathogens harmful to humans. What about chemical hazards from another site that washed into your garden? These could be serious. If flooding did occur in your garden, I advise you to speak with your local UGA Extension agent for advice from a food safety perspective.
Thinking of the gardeners and farmers in the path of the storm today.
Every year seems to bring a new set of challenges for the Georgia gardener. Some years the drought leaves our gardens in the dust and some years it never seems to dry out. Some years we break record heat waves and some years fall comes early. However, plant disease never seems to give us a break. As we try and coax healthy cool-season crops out of warm soil I thought it might be nice to take a look at some disease facts so we can come up with strategies to help ourselves.
Fact #1: Healthy plants can withstand disease better than stressed plants. Knowing what healthy plants look like (is that mottling part of the normal leaf or could it be a virus?), what your plants need in the way of fertility and water, and what conditions those plants need to thrive will go a long way in managing disease. If your plants need full sun, plant in full sun. Shade will stress your plants and open up the possibility for disease. Have your soil tested for fertility and use the results to meet the needs of your plants. Take away: Strive for healthy plants
Fact #2: Most of our disease-causing agents are fungi. We do battle some bacteria and some viral diseases but overwhelmingly fungi are our problem. Most fungi need a wet environment. You probably notice during rainy periods disease symptoms seem to magically appear. Community gardeners tend to plant our plots as full as possible limiting air circulation around the plants. Moisture stays on the leaves creating a perfect environment for pathogens. Take away: Limit overhead watering as much as possible. Make sure your plants have adequate air flow around them.
Fact #3: Often pathogens overwinter in garden debris. Many times fungal survival structures, like spores and mycelia, will last for months(years) in organic matter, leaves, and garden debris creating an environment for a reinfection during the next planting cycle. Take away: Clean your garden plots after every season.
Fact #4: Most fungicides are used as preventatives and not as a cure for disease. Once a plant has been infected it is hard to cure that plant. The pathogen is already present, has done damage and gardeners cannot rely on fungicides to fix the problem. Take away: Plan ahead for disease management.
Fact #5: Some pathogens will infect many types of plants but many pathogens have a narrow plant host range. Rusts (Uromyeces spp.) are common among bean plants and powdery mildew (Oidium spp.) always seems to find all types of squash. Take away: Know what diseases normally affect the plants you have in your garden. Learn to recognize the pathogen signs and symptoms. Use your local Extension office to help identify the diseases that plague you. Your agent can also help you devise a plan of disease management.
Fall is a busy time for gardeners and this fall will be especially busy with several exciting conferences scheduled in Georgia.
September 13th – 16th the American Community Gardening Association will have its 39th annual conference in Atlanta. Events will take place all across Atlanta with the hub of presentations at the Georgia International Convention Center in College Park. The theme is “Tending to the Beloved Community.” There are 36 presentations scheduled, tours of Atlanta area gardens, and a gala at the Atlanta Botanical Gardens. Registration is open. The conference schedule features several notable speakers including Georgia Department of Agriculture Commissioner Gary Black. I have heard him speak several times and he always delivers an entertaining and inspiring presentation.
September 22nd is the Monarchs Across Georgia Pollinator Symposium at the Monastary of the Holy Spirit in Conyers. This event will have fantastic speakers, nature walks, exhibitors and demonstrations. Many of you all feature pollinator spaces in your gardens and this would be a worthwhile day for you! Registration is open.
October 19th – 20th the Council of Outdoor Learning is holding their Outdoor Learning Symposium. It will be held at the Garden School in Marietta, just off the square. The Council of Outdoor Learning, an initiative of the Environmental Education Alliance of Georgia (EEA), is a coalition of organizations and individuals who share an interest in the design, development, maintenance, use, and longevity of outdoor classrooms. COOL serves teachers, parents, principals, and community volunteers as a resource link, providing up-to-date training and information to those interested in building and using outdoor classrooms. This will be a fantastic event for school gardeners and community gardeners who are interested in finding additional ways to use their space.
All three of these events are worth your consideration. Don’t forget to check with your local UGA Extension office for fall classes on cool-season gardening.
All of Georgia has seen a large amount of rain this summer. Rain is great for our crops and also great for weeds and if you have gotten lazy with the summer heat your plots may have more weeds than crop. You are not alone! This may be a great time to review best management practices for weed control.
Weeds can be a big problem in a community or school garden. A very big problem. Knowing how to weed correctly will make this job less of a headache. An informal poll was taken and we asked experienced gardeners to give their top three rules of weeding and we present them here:
Rule #1: Get the roots out.
If you just remove the leaves above ground chances are the weeds will come back and you will need to perform the same weeding chore over again. Many perennial weeds grow from underground roots and tubers. Those need to be removed as well.
Rule #2: Remove the weeds before they make seeds.
If your weeds are allowed to flower and make seeds your work will get much harder. Weed plants can make an incredible amount of seeds. For example, common chickweed can produce 800 seeds per plant. Dandelion flowers can make 40-100 seeds. Crabgrass can produce 53,000 seeds per plant and pigweed can produce over 200,000 seeds per plant. Don’t let those weeds flower!
Rule #3: Don’t let weeding get out of hand.
If you don’t routinely remove weeds you could be looking at a plot of weeds that seems overwhelming to tend. Your vegetable production will suffer as the weeds take up the water, nutrients, and space that should be used for your plants. And, it will take a lot of initiative to start the long process of taking back that space from the weeds.
Knowing what weeds you have could be helpful in coming up with a long-term weed management plan. Your local UGA Extension agent can help with weed plant identification and help you find strategies to minimize weed issues.
Happy 4th of July week! I hope your celebration will a good one full of fresh Georgia tomatoes, onions, watermelons….
As we think about the birthday of our country and how Americans celebrate there is always some type of food involved. And, depending on your cultural background it could include extra garlic, long beans, or tomatillos. The world is our garden and we have always been a country of immigrants.
A Garden is Common Ground
Across our country experienced gardeners are welcoming immigrants and refugees from all over to the United States in a garden setting. A garden is common ground. There may be language barriers but we can all “talk” seed, soil, and water.
Having the privledge of working with some of these gardens it is exciting as cultures are shared through the growing of food. Gardeners from Somalia are interested to see what the gardeners from Burma are growing. Gardeners from Kenya are poking their heads in the Syrian’s garden to see what is coming up there. Our American melting pot is alive and well in the garden.
People especially seem to enjoy growing foods from their homeland and their childhood. This is true even within the United States. Many a displaced Southerner has taken the family collard green seeds when being transferred to “the North”. Year after year, I grow family bean seeds brought down from the hills of Kentucky to Georgia. So, it is to be expected that our collective palate would be enriched by foods brought with immigrants from other countries.
A Diverse Dinner Plate
If you are fortunate enough to be invited to a pot-luck dinner at one of these gardens, it is an experience worthy of a 5-star restaurant rating. And, it will make you truly thankful for our county and all of its diversity.
A special “Thank You” goes out to a local food partner Global Growers who does such tremendous work with these gardeners in Georgia. And to gardens like the International Garden of Many Colors in California, the Fresh International Garden in Anchorage, Alaska and the North Fulton Extension Garden in Sandy Springs, Georgia.
I have gotten some requests to repost this information about heat stress. It is definitely summer in Georgia so we all need to take care.
Summer heat can be dangerous, especially with the heat and humidity we are experiencing this summer. We went to a professional to get tips on how to stay safe in a hot, humid Georgia garden.
Millard Griffin is a Certified Safety Professional with Environmental Resources Management (ERM). He has vast experience dealing with heat related issues on environmental projects from the Florida Everglades to the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. He knows heat and humidity.
Heat stress is a real concern for those working in the garden. Especially for those of us who aren’t out there every day. Heat stress is defined as any situation where the human body is unable to cool itself by sweating. This can lead to several conditions including heat rash, heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke (a medical emergency).
Tips to Prevent Heat Stress
To prevent these conditions Mr. Griffin gives us the following tips:
Acclimatize to the heat. Work a limited amount of time outdoors and gradually increase your amount of time in the heat.
Avoid the high heat periods of the day. Get your work done early in the morning or late in the day. Avoid the hours between 2 and 6 as the heat loads are typically higher during these hours.
Take frequent breaks in a cool area. Takingbreaks in an air conditioned area is preferable but, a shady area will work.
Limit exposure to direct sunlight when possible. Plan your workday to take advantage of shaded areas.
Drink plenty of water. Take a water break at least every hour, drinking cool water. Also, drink water before working in the garden. Hydration is key.
Avoid caffeinated beverages and alcohol. These are diuretics and cause your body to lose water.
Wear light colored, loose fitting clothing and a hat. Certainly use sunscreen to protect against UV rays on all exposed skin.
It is preferable to work with another gardener so you can monitor each other. If you notice extreme sweating, dizziness, nausea, or muscle cramps STOP WORKING. Head indoors, hydrate and cool down.
Certain people are more susceptible to heat stress – the elderly, children, pregnant women, and people who have just moved here from a cooler climate. Certain medications can also make someone more prone to heat stress. Mr. Griffin recommends checking with your doctor if you take medications.
Knowing this information will help keep you safe in the Georgia summer heat and make your gardening experience a more pleasurable one.
Whether you work a large family farm, a home vegetable garden, or a 4’X8’ community garden vegetable plot, routine scouting for insects should be an important part of your vegetable growing plan. Insect pests can be a costly problem on vegetables and the lifecycles of some of our insect pests are so short that missing a week of scouting can lead to damaged crops and increased pest numbers.
Scouting involves carefully and deliberately walking though the garden looking for insects on a routine basis. Inspect the leaves and fruits/vegetables. Look on the undersides of leaves and on the stem. Evidence of boring insects can be seen on the plant stem while insect eggs are often deposited on the leaf undersides. If you are unsure of an insect identification, contact your local UGA Cooperative Extension agent for assistance. Do not automatically reach for an insecticide!
Insect eggs are easily removed. Simply remove the entire leaf and fold the leaf over on itself and smash the eggs. Or, if you want to preserve the leaf, use sticky tape to remove the eggs. Place tape on top of the egg mass and gently pull removing the eggs. Fold the tape on itself and smash the eggs.
Eggs like these are easy to miss if you don’t routinely scout your garden! Dealing with squash bug eggs is easier than managing the 30+ pest insects that could mature from these eggs. A helpful video goes through the easy steps.
Learning about the insects that are common pests for the food crops you are growing can be very helpful. Leaf-footed bugs (Leptoglossus spp.) are a problem for tomatoes while squash bugs are pests in cucumbers, squash and pumpkins. Aphids (Aphidoidea superfamily) are a common problem especially when plants are full of liquid, after a rain, or when plants are growing quickly. Mexican bean beetles (Epilachna varivestis) can easily destroy a bean crop but these insects have been mistaken for beneficial lady beetles.
It is estimated that only 3% of insects are pests so the insects you find in your garden are not always problematic. Don’t assume every insect you find is a “bad bug!” Take time to learn about beneficial insects such as assassin bugs, parasitic wasps, and lady beetles. These can be tremendous allies in your garden. Often these insects need floral resources and the plants you have added to attract pollinators will also help other beneficial insects.
The copper colored ovals in the photo below are aphid mummies. A helpful parasitic wasp laid an egg inside an aphid pest (green insect below). As the egg hatched the resulting larva consumed the aphid insides for nutrition. When the wasp matured it emerged from the aphid leaving the empty shell, aphid mummy, behind. Adult wasps will be looking for some nectar so your pollinator garden will be useful here.
Scouting is just one tool of an integrated pest management (IPM) program. Other tools include:
¥ Altering planting time to miss large insect populations ¥ Using trap crops ¥ Starting with healthy soil ¥ Keeping the garden clean of debris ¥ Hand-pulling weeds ¥ Creating habitat for beneficial insects and pollinators ¥ Watering wisely ¥ Using plants that are proven to do well in your area